|SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4
C6-H8-O2, CH3CH=CHCO2CH=CH2, "crotonic acid, vinyl ester", "2-butenoic acid, ethenyl
ester", "2-butenoic acid, ethenyl ester", "vinyl 2-butenoate", "vinyl 2-butenoate"
HARMFUL - May cause lung damage if swallowed.
Although ingestion is not thought to produce harmful effects, the material may still be damaging to the health of the individual following ingestion, especially where pre- existing organ (e.g. liver, kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are generally based on doses producing mortality (death) rather than those producing morbidity (disease, ill-health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and vomiting. In an occupational setting however, ingestion of insignificant quantities is not thought to be cause for concern. Considered an unlikely route of entry in commercial/industrial environments. Ingestion may result in nausea, pain, vomiting. Vomit entering the lungs by aspiration may cause potentially lethal chemical pneumonitis. Vinyl esters, when ingested, can cause damage to the brain and spinal cord, resulting in muscular weakness and loss of sensation in the limbs.
Although the material is not thought to be an irritant, direct contact with the eye may produce transient discomfort characterized by tearing or conjunctival redness (as with windburn). The use of a quantity of material in an unventilated or confined space may result in increased exposure and an irritating atmosphere developing.Before starting consider control of exposure by mechanical ventilation. The vapour when concentrated has pronounced eye irritation effects and this gives some warning of high vapour concentrations. If eye irritation occurs seek to reduce exposure with available control measures, or evacuate area. The material may be irritating to the eye, with prolonged contact causing inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis.
The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects or skin irritation following contact (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable gloves be used in an occupational setting. The liquid may produce skin discomfort following prolonged contact. Defatting and/or drying of the skin may lead to dermatitis. Bare unprotected skin should not be exposed to this material. The material may accentuate any pre-existing skin condition. The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin redness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin.
Inhalation may produce health damage*. The material is not thought to produce respiratory irritation (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless inhalation of the material, especially for prolonged periods, may produce respiratory discomfort and occasionally, distress. Inhalation hazard is increased at higher temperatures. Acute effects from inhalation of high vapor concentrations may be chest and nasal irritation with coughing, sneezing, headache and even nausea. If exposure to highly concentrated vapor atmosphere is prolonged this may lead to narcosis, unconsciousness, even coma and unless resuscitated - death. Inhalation of vapor may aggravate a pre-existing respiratory condition. The main effects of simple esters are irritation, stupor and insensibility. Headache, drowsiness, dizziness, coma and behavioral changes may occur. Respiratory symptoms may include irritation, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, throat inflammation, bronchitis, lung inflammation and pulmonary edema, sometimes delayed. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and cramps are observed. Liver and kidney damage may result from massive exposures. Inhalation of vinyl esters is associated with damage to the nervous system. Exposure for extended periods can cause headache, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision and depression which is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness and headache, slowed reaction time, slurred speech and coma. Respiratory depression in serious cases of poisoning can cause death.
Principal routes of exposure are usually by skin contact/absorption and inhalation of vapor. Exposure to vinyl esters for extended periods of time can cause nervous system damage, developmental defects and cancer. Fetal malformations and deaths can occur at concentrations below which the mother is affected; at higher levels, there is an increased risk of miscarriage.