|SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4|
Used as a fuel; an industrial solvent; as a degreaser and cleaner. Fragrance
"petroleum hydrocarbons", "Lighting kerosene", "Coal oil", "Range oil", "liquid
hydrocarbon kerosine", Coralite, Deobase, ROZ-50, ROZ50, Septone, Glendale, "Blue
Irritating to skin.
HARMFUL - May cause lung damage if swallowed.
Swallowing of the liquid may cause aspiration into the lungs with the risk of chemical pneumonitis; serious consequences may result. (ICSC13733). Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual. Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons can irritate the pharynx, esophagus, stomach and small intestine, and cause swellings and ulcers of the mucous. Symptoms include a burning mouth and throat; larger amounts can cause nausea and vomiting, narcosis, weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow breathing, abdominal swelling, unconsciousness and convulsions. Damage to the heart muscle can produce heart beat irregularities, ventricular fibrillation (fatal) and ECG changes. The central nervous system can be depressed. Light species can cause a sharp tingling of the tongue and cause loss of sensation there. Aspiration can cause cough, gagging, pneumonia with swelling and bleeding. Considered an unlikely route of entry in commercial/industrial environments. The liquid may produce gastrointestinal discomfort and may be harmful if swallowed. Ingestion may result in nausea, pain and vomiting. Vomit entering the lungs by aspiration may cause potentially lethal chemical pneumonitis.
There is some evidence to suggest that this material can causeeye irritation and damage in some persons. The vapour when concentrated has pronounced eye irritation effects and this gives some warning of high vapour concentrations. If eye irritation occurs seek to reduce exposure with available control measures, or evacuate area. Direct eye contact with petroleum hydrocarbons can be painful, and the corneal epithelium may be temporarily damaged. Aromatic species can cause irritation and excessive tear secretion.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material. The liquid may be miscible with fats or oils and may degrease the skin, producing a skin reaction described as non-allergic contact dermatitis. The material is unlikely to produce an irritant dermatitis as described in EC Directives . The material may accentuate any pre-existing dermatitis condition. Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected. Aromatic hydrocarbons may produce sensitivity and redness of the skin. They are not likely to be absorbed into the body through the skin but branched species are more likely to. The material may cause moderate inflammation of the skin either following direct contact or after a delay of some time. Repeated exposure can cause contact dermatitis which is characterized by redness, swelling and blistering.
Inhalation may produce health damage*. Inhalation of vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. This may be accompanied by narcosis, reduced alertness, loss of reflexes, lack of coordination and vertigo. Inhalation of vapors or aerosols (mists, fumes), generated by the material during the course of normal handling, may be damaging to the health of the individual. There is some evidence to suggest that the material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body's response to such irritation can cause further lung damage. Inhalation of high concentrations of gas/vapor causes lung irritation with coughing and nausea, central nervous depression with headache and dizziness, slowing of reflexes, fatigue and inco-ordination. Inhaling high concentrations of mixed hydrocarbons can cause narcosis, with nausea, vomiting and lightheadedness. Low molecular weight (C2-C12) hydrocarbons can irritate mucous membranes and cause incoordination, giddiness, nausea, vertigo, confusion, headache, appetite loss, drowsiness, tremors and stupor. Massive exposures can lead to severe central nervous system depression, deep coma and death. Convulsions can occur due to brain irritation and/or lack of oxygen. Permanent scarring may occur, with epileptic seizures and brain bleeds occurring months after exposure. Respiratory system effects include inflammation of the lungs with edema and bleeding. Lighter species mainly cause kidney and nerve damage; the heavier paraffins and olefins are especially irritant to the respiratory system. Alkenes produce pulmonary edema at high concentrations. Liquid paraffins may produce sensation loss and depressant actions leading to weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow respiration, unconsciousness, convulsions and death. C5-7 paraffins may also produce multiple nerve damage. Aromatic hydrocarbons accumulate in lipid rich tissues (typically the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) and may produce functional impairment manifested by nonspecific symptoms such as nausea, weakness, fatigue, vertigo; severe exposures may produce inebriation or unconsciousness. Many of the petroleum hydrocarbons can sensitize the heart and may cause ventricular fibrillation, leading to death.
Limited evidence suggests that repeated or long-term occupational exposure may produce cumulative health effects involving organs or biochemical systems. Constant or exposure over long periods to mixed hydrocarbons may produce stupor with dizziness, weakness and visual disturbance, weight loss and anemia, and reduced liver and kidney function. Skin exposure may result in drying and cracking and redness of the skin. Chronic exposure to lighter hydrocarbons can cause nerve damage, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow dysfunction and psychiatric disorders as well as damage the liver and kidneys.