ZINC CHLORIDE 1M
|SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4|
Laboratory reagent. Intermediate
Risk of serious damage to eyes.
Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long- term adverse effects in the aquatic
The material can produce chemical burns within the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual. Soluble zinc salts produces irritation and corrosion of the alimentary tract with pain, and vomiting. Death can occur due to insufficiency of food intake due to severe narrowing of the esophagus and pylorus. Ingestion of acidic corrosives may produce burns around and in the mouth. the throat and esophagus. Immediate pain and difficulties in swallowing and speaking may also be evident. Swelling of the epiglottis may make it difficult to breathe which may result in suffocation. More severe exposure may result in vomiting blood and thick mucus, shock, abnormally low blood pressure, fluctuating pulse, shallow respiration and clammy skin, inflammation of stomach wall, and rupture of esophageal tissue. Untreated shock may eventually result in kidney failure. Severe cases may result in perforation of the stomach and abdominal cavity with consequent infection, rigidity and fever. There may be severe narrowing of the esophageal or pyloric sphincters; this may occur immediately or after a delay of weeks to years. There may be coma and convulsions, followed by death due to infection of the abdominal cavity, kidneys or lungs.
The material can produce chemical burns to the eye following direct contact. Vapors or mists may be extremely irritating. If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage. Direct eye contact with acid corrosives may produce pain, tears, sensitivity to light and burns. Mild burns of the epithelia generally recover rapidly and completely. Severe burns produce long-lasting and possibly irreversible damage. The appearance of the burn may not be apparent for several weeks after the initial contact. The cornea may ultimately become deeply opaque resulting in blindness.
The material can produce chemical burns following direct contactwith the skin. Skin contact is not thought to have harmful health effects, however the material may still produce health damage following entry through wounds, lesions or abrasions. Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected. Skin contact with acidic corrosives may result in pain and burns; these may be deep with distinct edges and may heal slowly with the formation of scar tissue.
If inhaled, this material can irritate the throat andlungs of some persons. The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects following inhalation (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless, adverse effects have been produced following exposure of animals by at least one other route and good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable control measures be used in an occupational setting. Not normally a hazard due to non-volatile nature of product. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapour or fumes present a hazard from a single acute exposure. Exposures of 1300 to 2000 ppm have been lethal to humans in a few minutes. Inhalation of HCl may cause choking, coughing, burning sensation and may cause ulceration of the nose, throat and larynx. Fluid on the lungs followed by generalised lung damage may follow. Breathing of HCl vapour may aggravate asthma and inflammatory or fibrotic pulmonary disease. High concentrations cause necrosis of the tracheal and bronchial epithelium, pulmonary oedema, atelectasis and emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels and liver. Corrosive acids can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, with coughing, choking and mucous membrane damage. There may be dizziness, headache, nausea and weakness. Swelling of the lungs can occur, either immediately or after a delay; symptoms of this include chest tightness, shortness of breath, frothy phlegm and cyanosis. Lack of oxygen can cause death hours after onset. Welding or flame cutting of metals with zinc or zinc dust coatings may result in inhalation of zinc oxide fume; high concentrations of zinc oxide fume may result in "metal fume fever"; also known as "brass chills", an industrial disease of short duration. [I.L.O] Symptoms include malaise, fever, weakness, nausea and may appear quickly if operations occur in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas. The vapor may produce discomfort of the upper respiratory tract.
Repeated or prolonged exposure to corrosives may result in the erosion of teeth, inflammatory and ulcerative changes in the mouth and necrosis (rarely) of the jaw. Bronchial irritation, with cough, and frequent attacks of bronchial pneumonia may ensue. Gastrointestinal disturbances may also occur. Chronic exposures may result in dermatitis and/or conjunctivitis. Limited evidence suggests that repeated or long-term occupational exposure may produce cumulative health effects involving organs or biochemical systems. Chronic minor exposure to hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapour or fume may cause discolouration or erosion of the teeth, bleeding of the nose and gums; and ulceration of the nasal mucous membranes. Repeated exposures of animals to concentrations of about 34 ppm HCl produced no immediate toxic effects. Workers exposed to hydrochloric acid suffered from gastritis and a number of cases of chronic bronchitis have also been reported. Repeated or prolonged exposure to dilute solutions of HCl may cause dermatitis. Welding or flame cutting of metals with zinc or zinc dust coatings may result in inhalation of zinc oxide fume; high concentrations of zinc oxide fume may result in "metal fume fever"; also known as "brass chills", an industrial disease of short duration. [I.L.O] Symptoms include malaise, fever, weakness, nausea and may appear quickly if operations occur in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas. Repeated or prolonged exposure to acids may result in the erosion of teeth, swelling and or ulceration of mouth lining. Irritation of airways to lung, with cough, and inflammation of lung tissue often occurs. Chronic exposure may inflame the skin or conjunctiva.