|SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4|
Used in dry cleaning, paints, polishes; as general purpose cleaning solvent.
"Stoddard solvent", "white spirits", "hydrocarbon solvent", "mineral spirit", "mineral
spirits", LAWS, "low aromatic white spirit", A-A-711, "Dry Cleaning Solvent", "Solvent
1005", "NIOSH ZC3850000", "turpentine substitute", "Shell White Spirit (Unmarked)"
Irritating to skin.
HARMFUL - May cause lung damage if swallowed.
Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation.
Swallowing of the liquid may cause aspiration into the lungs with the risk of chemical pneumonitis; serious consequences may result. (ICSC13733). Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual. Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons can irritate the pharynx, esophagus, stomach and small intestine, and cause swellings and ulcers of the mucous. Symptoms include a burning mouth and throat; larger amounts can cause nausea and vomiting, narcosis, weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow breathing, abdominal swelling, unconsciousness and convulsions. Damage to the heart muscle can produce heart beat irregularities, ventricular fibrillation (fatal) and ECG changes. The central nervous system can be depressed. Light species can cause a sharp tingling of the tongue and cause loss of sensation there. Aspiration can cause cough, gagging, pneumonia with swelling and bleeding.
There is some evidence to suggest that this material can causeeye irritation and damage in some persons. Direct eye contact with petroleum hydrocarbons can be painful, and the corneal epithelium may be temporarily damaged. Aromatic species can cause irritation and excessive tear secretion.
This material can cause inflammation of the skin oncontact in some persons. The material may accentuate any pre-existing dermatitis condition. The liquid may be miscible with fats or oils and may degrease the skin, producing a skin reaction described as non-allergic contact dermatitis. The material is unlikely to produce an irritant dermatitis as described in EC Directives . Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected. Aromatic hydrocarbons may produce sensitivity and redness of the skin. They are not likely to be absorbed into the body through the skin but branched species are more likely to.
Inhalation may produce health damage*. Inhalation of vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. This may be accompanied by narcosis, reduced alertness, loss of reflexes, lack of coordination and vertigo. Inhalation of aerosols (mists, fumes), generated by the material during the course of normal handling, may be damaging to the health of the individual. There is some evidence to suggest that the material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body's response to such irritation can cause further lung damage. Inhaling high concentrations of mixed hydrocarbons can cause narcosis, with nausea, vomiting and lightheadedness. Low molecular weight (C2-C12) hydrocarbons can irritate mucous membranes and cause incoordination, giddiness, nausea, vertigo, confusion, headache, appetite loss, drowsiness, tremors and stupor. Massive exposures can lead to severe central nervous system depression, deep coma and death. Convulsions can occur due to brain irritation and/or lack of oxygen. Permanent scarring may occur, with epileptic seizures and brain bleeds occurring months after exposure. Respiratory system effects include inflammation of the lungs with edema and bleeding. Lighter species mainly cause kidney and nerve damage; the heavier paraffins and olefins are especially irritant to the respiratory system. Alkenes produce pulmonary edema at high concentrations. Liquid paraffins may produce sensation loss and depressant actions leading to weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow respiration, unconsciousness, convulsions and death. C5-7 paraffins may also produce multiple nerve damage. Aromatic hydrocarbons accumulate in lipid rich tissues (typically the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) and may produce functional impairment manifested by nonspecific symptoms such as nausea, weakness, fatigue, vertigo; severe exposures may produce inebriation or unconsciousness. Many of the petroleum hydrocarbons can sensitize the heart and may cause ventricular fibrillation, leading to death. Central nervous system (CNS) depression may include general discomfort, symptoms of giddiness, headache, dizziness, nausea, anaesthetic effects, slowed reaction time, slurred speech and may progress to unconsciousness. Serious poisonings may result in respiratory depression and may be fatal. Inhalation of high concentrations of gas/vapor causes lung irritation with coughing and nausea, central nervous depression with headache and dizziness, slowing of reflexes, fatigue and inco-ordination. If exposure to highly concentrated solvent atmosphere is prolonged this may lead to narcosis, unconsciousness, even coma and possible death. Exposure to white spirit, in a controlled inhalation study using volunteers either at rest or during exercise, (1000 or 2500 mg/m3 for 30 minutes) produced a linear relationship between alveolar and arterial concentrations of the individual solvent components. Pulmonary absorption of the aliphatics ranged from 46-59%, whilst that of aromatic ranged from 58-70%. Although systemic absorption was greater during exercise, the proportion of circulating aliphatic to aromatic components decreased with increased activity. Exposure to 2500 - 5000 mg/m3 produces nausea and vertigo.
Limited evidence suggests that repeated or long-term occupational exposure may produce cumulative health effects involving organs or biochemical systems. Constant or exposure over long periods to mixed hydrocarbons may produce stupor with dizziness, weakness and visual disturbance, weight loss and anemia, and reduced liver and kidney function. Skin exposure may result in drying and cracking and redness of the skin. Chronic exposure to lighter hydrocarbons can cause nerve damage, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow dysfunction and psychiatric disorders as well as damage the liver and kidneys. Chronic solvent inhalation exposures may result in nervous system impairment and liver and blood changes. [PATTYS].